CONTEMPORARY THEORIES TO TRANSLATION
When it is taken theoretically, it is right to get a little theoretical so the translations be based upon a scientific ground. Questioning the cause and effect per this ground may provide righteous basis to the translation work that you do. Whether you are a translation company or a freelancer one should get into the subject of translation theories. Contemporary translation theories consists of 6 main approaches which are the semiotic approach, the linguistic approach, the literary approach, the hermeneutic approach, and the communicative approach. Here they are to provide an insight into the theories.
The Sociolinguistic Approach
As stated by the linguists who supports the sociolinguistic approach to translation, the social context describes what can and cannot be translated and what is or is not acceptable through selection, filtering and even censorship. By this point of view, the society and its aspects impacts the personality and being of a translator. While we are translating the texts, it is significant that the traces of sociocultural background can be seen in the final product. School of Tel Aviv is related to the sociolinguistic approach including Annie Brisset, Even Zohar and Guideon Toury.
The Communicative Approach
This point of view is described as interpretive. The “theory of sense,” was developed by researchers including D. Seleskovitch and M. Lederer, which is essentially stand on the fact of experience of conference interpreting. As discussed through this point of view, what is to be translated is the meaning but not the language. Language is just a mechanism to convey the message and sometimes it can be obstructive for comprehending the meaning. That way, the statements should be deverbalized rather than transcoding while we are translating.
The Hermeneutic Approach
The hermeneutic approach is basically formed on the scientific effort of George Steiner, who discusses that any linguistic transmission of humanbeings is a translation. In his book After Babel he discusses translation is not a science but an “exact art”. According to him a true translator should work as an author as to comprehend and transmit the message of the writer in the original text wants to state.
The Linguistic Approach
Linguistic scholars such as Vinay, Darbelnet, Austin, Vegliante, and Mounin, dealt with language text, structuralism, and pragmatics, in addition to the examination the process of translating. As stated by this linguistic point of view , any translation should be considered from the perspective of its vital units; that is, the word, the syntax and the sentence. Regardless of the type of the translation, whether it is a business translation, a medical transcription or a law document, it should be handled by this perspective.
The Literary Approach
As discussed per literary translation approach, a translation should not understood as a linguistic work but rather a literary task. Language has its own “motivation” and it is conveyed through words which take their source from the culture. This is the idea which provides the strength and conclusively the meaning. According to the literary approach, this is what an author should translate.
The Semiotic Approach
The science which studies the signs and signification is the Semiotics. Subsequently, it order to maintain the meaning, there should be a cooperation between sign, an object and an interpreter or a translator. Therefore, from the view of the semiotics, translation is the idea of as a method of interpreting the transcriptions in which encyclopedic content may vary and the uniqueness of each sociocultural context can be seen as motives.