CONTEMPORARY THEORIES TO TRANSLATION

When it is taken theoretically, it is right to get a little theoretical so the translations be based upon a scientific ground.  Questioning the cause and effect per this ground may provide righteous basis to the translation work that you do. Whether you are a translation company or a freelancer one should get into the subject of translation theories.  Contemporary translation theories consists of 6 main approaches which are the semiotic approach, the linguistic approach, the literary approach, the hermeneutic approach, and the communicative approach.  Here they are to provide an insight into the theories.

“Fragments of a vessel which are to be glued together must match one another in the smallest details, although they need not be like one another. In the same way a translation, instead of resembling the meaning of the original, must lovingly and in detail incorporate the original's mode of signification, thus making both the original and the translation recognizable as fragments of a greater language, just as fragments are part of a vessel.”
― Walter Benjamin
German Philosopher and Cultural Critic

The Sociolinguistic Approach

As stated by the linguists who supports the sociolinguistic approach to translation, the social context describes what can and cannot be translated and what is or is not acceptable through selection, filtering and even censorship. By this point of view, the society and its aspects impacts the personality and being of a translator.  While we are translating the texts, it is significant that the traces of  sociocultural background can be seen in the final product. School of Tel Aviv is related to the sociolinguistic approach including Annie Brisset, Even Zohar and Guideon Toury.

“(...) the difficulty of translation does not arise from the lack of specific translation language. It arises, rather, from the absence in the target language of a subcode equivalent to the one used by the source text in its reproduction of the source language” (Brisset 1996: 344).
― Annie Brisset
Professor of Translation Studies and Discourse Theory

The Communicative Approach

This point of view is described as interpretive. The “theory of sense,” was developed by researchers including D. Seleskovitch and M. Lederer, which is essentially stand on the fact of experience of conference interpreting. As discussed through this point of view, what is to be translated is the meaning but not the language.  Language is just a mechanism to convey the message and sometimes it can be obstructive for comprehending the meaning. That way, the statements should be deverbalized rather than transcoding while we are translating.

“Finally, (and controversially) there might be a case – in monolingual classes – for allowing the learners to conduct some speaking activities, initially at least, in their mother tongue. Allowing learners to use their L1 in the interests of promoting talk and a sense of community may well be a necessary stage in the transition from a monolingual (L1) through a bilingual (L1 and L2) to finally a monolingual (L2) culture again. Certainly, if students are not used to having conversations in the classroom (in whatever language), they may become more disposed to the idea if there is an initial transition period of ‘L1 permissiveness’, or if tasks are first performed in the L1 (as a kind of rehearsal) before moving into the L2.”
― Scott Thornbury
Academic and Teacher Trainer in the field of English Language Teaching.

The Hermeneutic Approach

The hermeneutic approach is basically formed on the scientific effort of George Steiner, who discusses that any linguistic transmission of humanbeings is a translation. In his book After Babel he discusses translation is not a science but an “exact art”. According to him  a true translator should work as an author as to comprehend and transmit the message of the writer in the original text wants to state.

"Central to everything I am and believe and have written is my astonishment, naive as it seems to people, that you can use human speech both to bless, to love, to build, to forgive and also to torture, to hate, to destroy and to annihilate."
― Francis George Steiner, FBA
French-born American Literary Critic, Essayist, Philosopher, Novelist, and Educator

The Linguistic Approach

Linguistic scholars such as  Vinay, Darbelnet, Austin, Vegliante, and Mounin, dealt with  language text, structuralism, and pragmatics, in addition to the examination the process of translating. As stated by this linguistic point of view , any translation  should be considered from the perspective of its vital units; that is, the word, the syntax and the sentence. Regardless of the type of the translation, whether it is a business translation, a medical transcription or a law document, it should be handled by this perspective.

"Words are not (except in their own little corner) facts or things: we need therefore to prise them off the world, to hold them apart from and against it, so that we can realize their inadequacies and arbitrariness, and can relook at the world without blinkers."
― John Langshaw "J. L." Austin
Philosopher of Language

 The Literary Approach

As discussed per literary translation approach, a translation should not understood as a linguistic work but rather a literary task. Language has its own “motivation” and it is conveyed through words which take their source from the culture. This is the idea which provides the strength and conclusively the meaning. According to the literary approach, this is what an author should translate.

“To translate, one must have a style of his own, for otherwise the translation will have no rhythm or nuance, which come from the process of artistically thinking through and molding the sentences; they cannot be reconstituted by piecemeal imitation. The problem of translation is to retreat to a simpler tenor of one’s own style and creatively adjust this to one’s author.”
― Paul Goodman
American Novelist, Playwright, Poet, Literary Critic, And Psychotherapist

The Semiotic Approach

The science which studies the signs and signification is the Semiotics. Subsequently, it order to maintain the meaning, there should be a cooperation between sign, an object and an interpreter or a translator. Therefore, from the view of the semiotics, translation is the idea of as a method of interpreting the transcriptions in which encyclopedic content may vary and the uniqueness of each sociocultural context can be seen as motives.

"Semiotics is a general theory of all existing languages... all forms of communication - visual, tactile, and so on... There is general semiotics, which is a philosophical approach to this field, and then there are many specific semiotics."
― Umberto Eco
Italian Novelist, Literary Critic, Philosopher, Semiotician, And University Professor